Surgery is normally the last option in dental treatment. However,oral, and maxillofacial surgery may need to be performed by dentists or oral surgeons for treatment of a certain conditions. Dental surgeries are often categorized as major and minor, depending on the extent and complication of the procedure and the involved risk. The following proceduresare included in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Oral surgery procedures
· Dental Extraction: When a tooth cannot be restored in any manner then it must be extracted.
· Impacted teeth: teeth which are not fully erupted are called impacted teeth. Impaction normally occurs in the third molars, especially those in the lower jaw, and can cause sever discomfort and even disease. Such teeth may have to be surgically removed. This procedure may involve anesthesia.
· Crown Lengthening: It can improve a ‘gummy’ smile. Length of the visible part of teeth is increased.
· Frenectomy: Frenum is the band of tissue between the upper front teeth. In some cases, it may be abnormally large and create an unseemly gap between the teeth. Frenectomy will readjust the tissue.
· Gingivectomy: is the trimming of overgrown gums.
· Gum grafting- If gums are too small or receded gum flesh may be grafted. This may be done to improve the smile, or where implants are being installed.
· Bone grafting- Dental implants require sufficiently healthy volume of bone to support them. In case bone is deficient in the region of proposed implant bone can be grafted.
· Implant Placement: Implant placement involves drilling of the bone and possibly, reflection of the flap.
· Jaw Surgery: Jaw surgery may be required to treat a fracture or to correct an orthodontic abnormality. It is a complicated procedure
· Treatment of Clefts: Cleft lips and palates can be corrected by surgery.
· TMD treatment may involve some surgical procedure.