Surgical treatment in gum problems is usually required when there is an irreversible damage to the underlying jaw bone, gums, and other periodontal structures.
Types of Surgical Procedures Performed to Treat Gum Problems
Dentists can perform several surgical procedures for the management of gum and periodontal problems:
· Gum Re-attachment/Crown Lengthening –this procedure is done to restore the length of gums, which have receded because of extensive periodontal inflammation. The procedure is performed by detaching the gums from their position, and then re-attaching them at a higher position where they should be present under healthy conditions.
· Gum Grafting – sometimes, there is very less gum tissue available for gum re-attachment. In these cases, mucosal tissue from other donor sites in the body is collected, and used for the restoring the normal contour, size, and length of the gums.
· Bone Grafting – extensive periodontal disease also causes widespread bone loss within the jaw. In most cases, the remaining bone is unable to support any tooth replacement prosthesis that is placed over it, especially dental implants. Therefore, the thickens, height and volume of the bone is restored with the help of a natural or synthetic bone graft.
· Surgical/Laser Gum Removal – periodontal Inflammation sometimes also results in excessive enlargement of the gums. This not only creates serious esthetic problems, but also makes eating difficult. In these cases, the shape and contour of the gums is corrected by removing excessive gum tissue, either surgically or by using a laser.
· Guided Tissue Regeneration – Guided tissue regeneration is a procedure which involves regeneration of periodontal tissues by placing a suitable scaffold at the site, and providing the required growth factors which are essential for bone and periodontal regeneration.